Table 1

Demographic characteristics and outcomes among three groups who received erector spinae plane (ESP) block, thoracic epidural (TE), and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)

VariablesESP block (n=19)TE (n=41)PCA (n=18)P value
Sex, n (%)
 Male19 (100)33 (80)15 (83)0.122
 Female0 (0)8 (20)3 (17)
Opioid use (MME)*66.9±48.8117.0±81.1172.1±103.9<0.001
Length of stay*3.3±0.54.7±0.93.7±1.2<0.001
Pain ratings (NPRS)*4.5±1.53.4±1.54.1±1.50.029
ED visit, n (%)
Readmission, n (%)
Refill, n (%)
  • P values are obtained by χ2 test or ANOVA analysis. For variables that are fewer than five patients in the subgroup, Fisher’s exact test was applied.

  • *Data were presented as mean±SD.

  • ED, emergency department; MME, morphine milligram equivalent; NPRS, Numeric Pain Rating Scale.