Table 2

Risk stratification system (CCCG-HB-2016)6

Risk groupAFP
PRETEXT staging systemCOG staging systemPathological typeP+/V+/M+/E+/H+/N+Note
Very low riskStage IDifferentiated PFHBoth met simultaneously.
Low risk1≥100Stage I/IINoneAll met simultaneously.
2Stage I/IINon-PFH and non-SUCBoth met simultaneously.
Intermediate risk1Stage III
2Stage I/IISUCBoth met simultaneously.
3Stage III
High risk1<100Satisfy any of them.
2Stage IV
3Stage IV
  • AFP, alpha fetoprotein; CCCG-HB-2016, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association Pediatric Committee Hepatoblastoma consensus 2016; COG, Children’s Oncology Group; E+, extrahepatic and intra-abdominal diseases; H+, liver rupture or intraperitoneal bleeding; HB, hepatoblastoma; M+, instant metastasis; N+, lymph node involvement; P+, portal vein invasion; PFH, pure fetal histology; PRETEXT, PRE Treatment EXTent of disease; SUC, small cell undifferentiated; V+, inferior vena cava or hepatic vein invasion.