Table 1

A summary of the studies using the piglet model

AuthorTitleNEC protocolGestational age (days)Area of study
Robinson et al30Prematurity reduces citrulline- arginine-nitric oxide production and precedes the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis in pigletsPiglets gavaged with formula, and tracer induced TPN for 42 hours, starting day 3 of life (DOL)103Effects of tracers including citrulline, arginine, and nitric oxide in lowering the Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis
Zamora et al15Low abdominal near-infared spectroscopy values and elevated plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in a premature piglet model of necrotizing enterocolitisPiglets gavaged with 3–5 mL/kg/h of infant formula every 3 hours for 48 hours starting on day of life 3103Detecting necrotizing enterocolitis prior to the onset of clinical symptoms through continuous abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy measurements
Burrin et al31Delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral formula feeding reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigsEarly abrupt group: gavaged with formula every 3 hours starting day of life 2, late abrupt: gavaged with formula every 3 hours starting day of life 5103Early versus late initiation and abrupt versus gradual advancement of enteral feeding of an intact versus hydrolyzed protein formula on incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis
Burrin et al32Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of abdominal tissue oxygenation is a useful indicator of intestinal blood flow and necrotizing enterocolitis in premature pigletsPiglets gavaged with cow’s milk formula every 3 hours after 72 hours of life. Piglets attached to abdominal near-infared spectroscopy probe for continuous monitoring105–107Developing a non-invasive method for early detection for necrotizing enterocolitis using near-infrared spectroscopy probes
Sun et al33Necrotizing enterocolitis is associated with acute brain responses in preterm pigsGavaged with increasing doses of human donor milk for 8 days, starting day of life 0106The effects of necrotizing enterocolitis lesions on the neuro development of the hippocampus
Jensen et al16Similar efficacy of human banked milk and bovine colostrum to decrease incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigletsPiglets gavaged with either human donor milk, bovine colostrum, and infant formula every 2 hours, starting day of life 3105Developing supplemental replacements for formula
Bjornvad et al34Enteral feeding induces diet-dependent mucosal dysfunction, bacterial proliferation, and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigsPiglets gavaged with either porcine colostrum, bovine colostrum, or infant formula every 3 hours, starting day of life 0 for 20–40 hours105–108Effects of formula on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis
Buddington et al35The risk of necrotizing enterocolitis differs among preterm pigs fed formulas with either lactose or maltodextrinPiglets gavaged with colostrum, lactose, and maltodextrin105Removing maltodextrin in formula to lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis
Good et al36Lactobacillus rhamnoses HN001 decreases the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal mice and preterm piglets: evidence in mice for a role of TLR9Piglets were gavaged with 15 mL/kg of formula every 3 hours for 4 days containing Lactobacillus rhamnoses DNA or live Lactobacillus rhamnoses105–108Potential of lactobacillus rhamnoses in lowering the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis